What is a drug crime?
A drug crime is the:
of any of the following:
* Anabolic steroids
* Chemicals (used in the production of drugs)
Different types of illegal drugs:
* Methamphetamine (meth)
Consequences of a Drug Crime conviction
* Probation or parole
* Loss of custody of children
* Court ordered counseling
* Significant fines
* Loss of a job
* Community service
* Loss of residency
The likelihood of any of the above consequences depends on:
* Amount of drugs in possession
* The type of drug
* Prior convictions
* Currently on probation or parole
* Attitude of community and court toward this type of crime
What can you do if you are Accused of a Drug Crime?
If you are accused of a drug crime, you should speak to a lawyer immediately to learn more about your rights, your defenses and the complicated legal system.
Lab-based Hair Drug Testing Kit
Lab-based Hair Drug Testing Kit- 10 Panel (THC, COC, AMP, mAMP, OPI, PCP, BZO, B – $ 229.00
The Lab-based Hair Drug Testing Kit is designed for pre-employment purposes. With one test you can find out up to a 3-6 month drug history of a person. This is the ultimate hair drug test kit that detects for 10 most popular illicit drugs. The test does not detect for prescription drugs but will cover all the drug classes below: Marijuana (Carboxy – THC) Cocaine (Benzoylecgonine) Amphetamines Methamphetamines Opiates (Codeine & Morphine) Phencyclidine Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Propoxyphene Methadone Hair collection is arranged for you at a local testing center.
Drug Testing Kit for Parents
365 Days Drug Testing Solution Package for Parents – $ 264.00
Hair Drug testing is a great way to monitor your teenager for potential drug use. Hair testing technology is extremely accurate and can provide a drug history for 90 days.Our 365 Days Drug Testing Solution Package for Parents consists of 4 Hair Testing Kits, so you can now test your child every 3 months for a full year, and the cost is equivalent to just $22 month!If your teenager has very short or no hair, body hair can be used. And don’t worry about masking agents, bleaches, shampoos and external contaminants have no known impact on test results.
Date Rape Drug Hair Test
Date Rape Drug Hair Test (Benzo’s, Rohypnol, Ketamine & GHB) – $ 399.00
From: Test Country
Date Rape Drug Hair Test (Benzo’s, Rohypnol, Ketamine & GHB) – $ 399.00
This is the ultimate drug test for detection of Date Rape Drugs (Benzo’s Rohypnol, Ketamine & GHB). It is the only commercially available hair drug tests in the market . The test is done an accredited laboratory that works as forensic lab with multiple Law Enforcement Agencies. Please make sure to include possible date of incident on the form. Tests give quantified analysis for detection of following drug classes: Rohypnol: According to NIDA, Rohypnol’s trade name for flunitrazepam, and this drug belongs to a class of drugs known as benzodiazepines. Rohypnol can incapacitate victims and prevent them from resisting sexual assault. This drug can produce “anterograde amnesia,” which means individuals may not remember events they experienced while under the effects of the drug. Also, Rohypnol may be lethal when mixed with alcohol and/or other depressants. Rohypnol is not approved for use in the United States, and its importation is banned. Illicit abuse of Rohypnol started appearing in the United States in the early 1990s, where it became known as “rophies,” “roofies,” “roach,” and “rope.” Abuse of two other similar drugs appears to have replaced Rohypnol abuse in some regions of the country. These are clonazepam, marketed in the U.S. as Klonopin and in Mexico as Rivotril, and alprazolam, marketed as Xanax. GHB: Since about 1990, GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) has been abused in the U.S. for its euphoric, sedative, and anabolic (body building) effects. It is a central nervous system depressant that was widely available over-the-counter in health food stores during the 1980s and until 1992. It was purchased largely by body builders to aid in fat reduction and muscle building. Street names include “liquid ecstasy,” “soap,” “easy lay,” “vita-G,” and “Georgia home boy.” Coma and seizures can occur following abuse of GHB. Combining abuse of GHB with other drugs such as alcohol can result in nausea and breathing difficulties. GHB may also produce withdrawal effects, including insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating. GHB and two of its precursors, gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (BD), have been involved in poisonings, overdoses, date rapes, and deaths. Ketamine: Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic, so called because it distorts perceptions of sight and sound and produces feelings of detachment from the environment and self. Ketamine acts on a type of glutamate receptor (NMDA receptor) to produce its effects, similar to those of the drug PCP.1 Low-dose intoxication results in impaired attention, learning ability, and memory. At higher doses, ketamine can cause dreamlike states and hallucinations; and at higher doses still, ketamine can cause delirium and amnesia.
Club drugs are a pharmacologically heterogeneous group of psychoactive compounds that tend to be abused by teens and young adults at a nightclub, bar, rave, or trance scene. Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Rohypnol, ketamine, MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamine are some of the drugs in this group.1
MDMA is a synthetic, psychoactive drug chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline.2
The tasteless and odorless depressants Rohypnol and GHB are often
used in the commission of sexual assaults due to their ability to sedate
and intoxicate unsuspecting victims. Rohypnol, a sedative/tranquilizer,
is legally available for prescription in over 50 countries outside
of the U.S. and is widely available in Mexico, Colombia, and Europe.3 Although
usually taken orally in pill form, reports have shown that some users
grind Rohypnol into a powder and snort the drug.4
GHB, available in an odorless, colorless liquid form or as a white
powder material, is taken orally, and is frequently combined with alcohol.
In addition to being used to incapacitate individuals for the commission
of sexual assault/rape, GHB is also sometimes used by body builders
for its alleged anabolic effects.5
The abuse of ketamine, a tranquilizer most often used on animals,
became popular in the 1980s, when it was realized that large doses
cause reactions similar to those associated with the use of PCP, such
as dream-like states and hallucinations.6 The
liquid form of ketamine can be injected, consumed in drinks, or added
to smokable materials. The powder form can also be added to drinks,
smoked, or dissolved and then injected.7 In
some cases, ketamine is being injected intramuscularly.8
Extent of Use
According to the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an estimated 12.9 million Americans aged 12 or older tried ecstasy at least once in their lifetimes, representing 5.2% of the U.S. population in that age group. The estimated number of past year ecstasy users in 2008 was approximately 2.1 million (0.9% of the population aged 12 or older) and the number of past month ecstasy users was 555,000 (0.2%).9
Among 12–17 year olds surveyed as part of the 2008 NSDUH, 0.4% reported past month ecstasy use. Additional NSDUH results indicate that 0.9% of 18–25 year olds and 0.1% of those aged 26 or older reported past month use of ecstasy.10
Results of the 2008 Monitoring the Future survey indicate that 2.4% of eighth graders, 4.3% of tenth graders, and 6.2% of twelfth graders reported lifetime use of MDMA. In 2007, these percentages were 2.3%, 5.2%, and 6.5%, respectively. 11
Percent of Students Reporting MDMA Use, 2007–2008
Approximately 28.6% of eighth graders, 43.2% of tenth graders, and 57.0% of twelfth graders surveyed in 2008 reported that trying MDMA once or twice was a “great risk.” 12
Percent of Students Reporting Risk of Using MDMA, 2008
|Say “great risk” to:||
|Try MDMA once/twice||28.6%||43.2%||57.0%|
|Use MDMA occasionally||46.8||66.4||n/a|
Approximately 0.7% of eighth graders and 0.9% of tenth graders surveyed in 2008 reported lifetime use of Rohypnol (twelfth grade data are not available for Rohypnol). 13
Percent of Students Reporting Rohypnol Use, 2007–2008
Additional Monitoring the Future results for 2008 indicate that 1.1% of eighth graders, 0.5% of tenth graders, and 1.2% of twelfth graders reported past year use of GHB. Data showing past month and lifetime use of GHB and ketamine were not captured in the study. 14
Percent of Students Reporting Past Year GHB/Ketamine Use,
The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance (YRBS) study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) surveys high school students on several risk factors including drug and alcohol use. Results of the 2007 survey indicate that 5.8% of high school students reported using ecstasy at some point in their lifetimes. During 2005, 6.3% of high school students reported lifetime use of ecstasy. 15
Percent of Students Reporting Lifetime MDMA Use,
In high doses, MDMA can interfere with the body’s ability to regulate
temperature, sometimes leading to a sharp increase in body temperature
(hyperthermia), resulting in liver, kidney, and cardiovascular system
failure, and death. MDMA users also risk increases in heart rate and
blood pressure, and symptoms such as muscle tension, involuntary teeth
clenching, nausea, blurred vision, faintness, and chills or sweating.
Psychological effects of MDMA use can include confusion, depression,
sleep problems, drug craving, and severe anxiety. Additionally, these
problems can occur during as well as sometimes days or weeks after
using the drug.16
Rohypnol, GHB, and ketamine are all central nervous system depressants.
Lower doses of Rohypnol can cause muscle relaxation and can produce
general sedative and hypnotic effects. In higher doses, Rohypnol causes
a loss of muscle control, loss of consciousness, and partial amnesia.
When combined with alcohol, the toxic effects of Rohypnol can be aggravated.17
The sedative effects of GHB may result in sleep, coma, or death. Other effects of GHB use can include seizures, along with nausea and breathing difficulties when combined with alcohol. GHB has increasingly become involved in poisonings, overdoses, date rapes, and fatalities.18
The use of ketamine produces effects similar to PCP and LSD, causing
distorted perceptions of sight and sound and making the user feel disconnected
and out of control.19 The
overt hallucinatory effects of ketamine are relatively short-acting,
lasting approximately one hour or less. However, the user’s senses,
judgement, and coordination may be affected for up to 24 hours after
the initial use of the drug.20 Use
of this drug can also bring about respiratory depression, heart rate
abnormalities, and a withdrawal syndrome.21
Of an estimated 113 million emergency department (ED) visits in the U.S. during 2006, the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) estimates that 1,742,887 were drug-related. DAWN data indicate that MDMA was involved in 16,749 ED visits; GHB was involved in 1,084 visits; and ketamine was involved in 270 visits.22
Arrests & Sentencing
During 2006, Federal authorities made 690 arrests related to MDMA.
This is down from: 764 in 2005; 937 in 2004; 1,023 in 2003; and 1,506
in 2002. There were also 2 Federal arrests for GHB in the U.S. during
2006, which is down from 19 in 2005 and 20 in 2004.23
In response to the Ecstasy Anti-Proliferation Act of 2000, the U.S.
Sentencing Commission increased the guideline sentence for trafficking
MDMA. The new amendment, enacted on November 1, 2001, increases the
sentence for trafficking 800 MDMA pills by 300%, from 15 months to
5 years. It also increases the penalty for trafficking 8,000 pills
by nearly 200%, from 41 months to 10 years.24
The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) II program is designed to gather information on drug use and related matters from adult male offenders within 48 hours of arrest. ADAM II serves as a critical source of data for estimating trends in drug use in local areas, understanding the relationship between drugs and crime, and describing drug market activity in the adult male arrestee population in 10 U.S. sites during 2008. Arrestees in Washington, DC reported a significantly higher rate of ecstasy/MDMA use in the past 3 days compared to arrestees in the 9 other ADAM II sites.25
Percent of Adult Arrestees Reporting Ecstasy/MDMA Use in the Past 3 Days, by City, 2008
Ecstasy / MDMA Use
|New York, NY||1.8|
Production & Trafficking
MDMA production by Asian drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) in
Canada has increased significantly since 2004, fueling MDMA distribution
by Canada-based Asian DTOs in U.S. drug markets. According to the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), while the number of MDMA lab seizures
have remained relatively stable since 2004, the capacity of the labs
has increased greatly.26
Domestic production of MDMA is limited and is expected to remain at
low levels in the near future. Since 2000, only 85 domestic MDMA laboratories
have been seized. National seizure data show that 53% of the MDMA labs
seized in the U.S. since 2000 were small operations not capable of
producing more than 2 ounces per production cycle.27
GHB trafficking has declined to a low level since its apparent peak
during 2000. National seizure data reveal that domestic production
of GHB is limited, with only 86 laboratories seized in the U.S. since
MDMA, GHB, Rohypnol, and ketamine have all been scheduled under the
Controlled Substance Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug
Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. The Schedules of the club
drugs are as follows:
- MDMA—Schedule I as of 1998
- GHB—Schedule I as of 2000
- Rohypnol—Schedule IV as of 1984
- Ketamine—Schedule III as of 1999
|Goop||Cat valium||Disco biscuit||Forget me drug|
|Grievous bodily harm||K||Hug drug||Mexican valium|
This resource presents links to and full text of National Institute
on Drug Abuse (NIDA) research articles concerning club drugs.
This NIDA site provides club drugs resources including publications,
news, and data.
A listing of club drug-related publications from various sources.
This resource provides information on the date rape drugs GHB, Ketamine,
A comprehensive online resource providing data, publications, events,
and other information related to club drugs.
5 Drug Enforcement
Administration Web site, Drug
Descriptions: Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB)
9 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings, September 2009
15 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: Youth Online: Comprehensive Results
19 National Institute
on Drug Abuse, Research
Report: Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, March 2001
21 National Institute
on Drug Abuse, Research
Report: Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, March 2001
22 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2006: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits (PDF), August 2008
24 U.S. Sentencing
Commission, Congressional Testimony, Statement
of Diana E. Murphy, Chair of the U.S. Sentence Commission, before the
Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control (PDF), March 21,
25 Office of National Drug Control Policy, ADAM II 2008 Annual Report: Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program II, April 2009
Prescription drug abuse means taking a prescription medication that is not prescribed for you, or taking it for reasons or in dosages other than as prescribed. Abuse of prescription drugs can produce serious health effects, including addiction. Commonly abused classes of prescription medications include opioids (for pain), central nervous system depressants (for anxiety and sleep disorders), and stimulants (for ADHD and narcolepsy). Opioids include hydrocodone (Vicodin®), oxycodone (OxyContin®), propoxyphene (Darvon®), hydromorphone (Dilaudid®), meperidine (Demerol®), and diphenoxylate (Lomotil®). Central nervous system depressants include barbiturates such as pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal®), and benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium®) and alprazolam (Xanax®). Stimulants include dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine®), methylphenidate (Ritalin® and Concerta®), and amphetamines (Adderall®).
Prescription Drug Monitoring Program
The United States Drug Enforcement agency is working on a way to manage prescription drug abuse in this country.
Here are a few questions and answers from the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Diversion regarding the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program.
1. What is a prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP)?
According to the National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws (NAMSDL), a PDMP is a statewide electronic database which collects designated data on substances dispensed in the state. The PDMP is housed by a specified statewide regulatory, administrative or law enforcement agency. The housing agency distributes data from the database to individuals who are authorized under state law to receive the information for purposes of their profession.
2. Does the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) oversee PDMPs?
The DEA is not involved with the administration of any state PDMP.
3. What are the benefits of having a PDMP?
The overview provided by NAMSDL clearly identifies the benefits of a PDMP: as a tool used by states to address prescription drug abuse, addiction and diversion, it may serve several purposes such as:
1. support access to legitimate medical use of controlled substances,
2. identify and deter or prevent drug abuse and diversion,
3. facilitate and encourage the identification, intervention with and treatment of persons addicted to prescription drugs,
4. inform public health initiatives through outlining of use and abuse trends, and
5. educate individuals about PDMPs and the use, abuse and diversion of and addiction to prescription drugs.
4. Which states currently have a PDMP?
As of July 2010, 34 states have operational PDMPs that have the capacity to receive and distribute controlled substance prescription information to authorized users. States with operational programs include:
Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wyoming.
Seven states (Alaska, Florida, Kansas, New Jersey, Oregon, South Dakota and Wisconsin) and one U.S. territory (Guam) have enacted legislation to establish a PDMP, but are not fully operational.
*Washington State’s PDMP was operational but has been suspended due to fiscal constraints.
5. Are there other states that are planning to implement a PDMP?
Delaware has legislation pending to establish a PDMP.
6. Who can I contact regarding a PDMP in a specific state?
Each state designates a state agency to oversee its PDMP, which may include health departments, pharmacy boards, or state law enforcement. The Alliance of States with Prescription Monitoring Programs (www.pmpalliance.org) maintains a list of state contacts.
7. Where can I find state laws pertaining to prescription drug monitoring?
The National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws (www.namsdl.org) provides links to each state’s statutes and regulations regarding PDMPs.
8. Who can access the PDMP information collected?
Each state controls who will have access and for what purpose.
9. Is federal funding available for PDMPs?
There are currently two federal sources of funding for state PDMPs. The first is the Harold Rogers Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (HRPDMP) administered by the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance. HRPDMP provides three categories of grants: planning, implementation, and enhancement. To be eligible for funding, the state must already have a statute or regulation permitting the establishment of a PDMP.
Since its inception in 2002, the HRPDMP has awarded over 100 grants for approximately $48 million. Congress allocated $7 million for fiscal year 2010 (FY10) for the grant program. Additional information can be found at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/grant/prescripdrugs.html
The second source of federal funding is the National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act (NASPER) administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). This grant program enables states to create a PDMP database or enhance an existing one. Congress appropriated $2 million in FY09 to implement NASPER. FY09 is the first year for which state grants were made available. Appropriations for FY10 grants are also $2 million.
10. What is the difference between HRPDMP and NASPER?
The purpose of the HRPDMP is to enhance the capacity of regulatory and law enforcement agencies as well as public health officials to collect and analyze controlled substance prescription data through a centralized database administered by an authorized state agency.
NASPER administers a grant program under the authority of HHS. The intent of the law was to foster the establishment or enhancement of PDMPs that would meet consistent national criteria and have the capacity for the interstate exchange of information.
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