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Wisconsin Cyberstalking Laws

Wisconsin Cyberstalking Laws

Assembly Bill 738 amends 940.32

Chapter 940

940.32 Stalking. 40.32 (1) (a) 6m. Photographing, videotaping, audiotaping, or, through any other electronic means, monitoring or recording the activities of the victim. This subdivision applies regardless of where the act occurs.

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Posted by admin - August 31, 2010 at 10:43 pm

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New Mexico Cyberstalking Laws

New Mexico Cyberstalking Laws

New Mexico Statute Annotated. § c.6.12.7- Defines bullying to include “any repeated and pervasive written, verbal or electronic expression, physical act or gesture, or a pattern thereof that is intended to cause distress upon one or more students in the school, on school grounds, in school vehicles, at a designated bus stop, or at school activities or sanctioned events. Bullying includes, but is not limited to, hazing, harassment, intimidation or menacing acts of a student which may, but need not be based on the student’s race, color, sex, ethnicity, national origin, religion, disability, age or sexual orientation.”

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Posted by admin - at 4:56 pm

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Maine Cyberstalking Laws

Maine Cyberstalking Laws

LD749
Status: Signed by the governor, effective September 17, 2001
Effective June 7, 2001, Sec. 1. 17-A MRSA §210-A, sub-§2, ¶A, as enacted by PL 1995, c. 668, §3, is amended to read:

A. “Course of conduct” means repeatedly maintaining a visual or physical proximity to a person or repeatedly conveying oral or written threats, threats implied by conduct or a combination of threats and conduct directed at or toward a person. “Course of conduct” also means, with intent to harass, annoy or alarm another person, communicating or causing a communication to be initiated by mechanical or electronic means or otherwise with that person, anonymously or otherwise, by telephone, telegraph, mail or any other form of written communication via computer, use of computer networking, electronic mail, and utilizing the internet. For purposes of this section, “course of conduct” also includes, but is not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to personal, medical, financial or other identifying information, including access by computer network, mail, telephone or written communication. “Course of conduct” does not include activity protected by the Constitution of Maine, the United States Constitution or by state or federal statute.

SUMMARY
This bill amends the crime of stalking to include communicating by electronic means with a person with the intent to harass, annoy or alarm that person.

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Posted by admin - at 12:36 am

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Kentucky Cyberstalking Laws

Kentucky Cyberstalking Laws

KRS 508.130(2)

Bill Proposal: HB335 (BR 1027):
Sponsor – J. Jenkins

AN ACT relating to crimes and punishments. Amend KRS 508.130 to include verbal, electronic, or written communication within the course of conduct prohibited by the stalking statutes; create a new section of KRS Chapter 508 to expand the allowable venues for a stalking prosecution.

  • Jan 14-introduced in House
  • Jan 15-to Judiciary (H)

KRS 508.130

As used in KRS 508.130 to 508.150, unless the context requires otherwise:

    1. To “stalk” means to engage in an intentional course of conduct:
      1. Directed at a specific person or persons;
      2. Which seriously alarms, annoys, intimidates, or harasses the person or persons; and
      3. Which serves no legitimate purpose.
    2. The course of conduct shall be that which would cause a reasonable person to suffer substantial mental distress.
  1. “Course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct composed of two (2) or more acts, including communications made verbally, electronically, or in writing, evidencing a continuity of purpose. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of “course of conduct.” If the defendant claims that he was engaged in constitutionally protected activity, the court shall determine the validity of that claim as a matter of law and, if found valid, shall exclude that activity from evidence.
  2. “Protective order” means:
    1. An emergency protective order or domestic violence order issued under KRS 403.715 to 403.785;
    2. A foreign protective order, as defined in KRS 403.7521(1);
    3. An order issued under KRS 431.064; and
    4. Any condition of a bond, conditional release, probation, parole, or pretrial diversion order designed to protect the victim from the offender.

SECTION 1. A NEW SECTION OF KRS 508.130 TO 508.150 IS CREATED TO READ AS FOLLOWS:

In a prosecution under KRS 508.140 or 508.150, venue may additionally be in the county where communication forming a part of the course of conduct giving rise to the offense was sent or directed by the defendant or was read, received, or viewed by the victim.

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Posted by admin - August 30, 2010 at 11:37 pm

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California Cyberstalking Laws

California Cyberstalking Laws

Cal. Civil Code § 1708.7

SECTION 1. It is the intent of this act to clarify that electronic communications are included in the actions that can constitute the crimes of harassment and stalking. It is not the intent of the Legislature, by adoption of this act, to restrict in any way the types of conduct or actions that can constitute harassment or stalking.

SEC. 2. Section 1708.7 of the Civil Code is amended to read:
1708.7.

  1. A person is liable for the tort of stalking when the plaintiff proves all of the following elements of the tort:
    1. The defendant engaged in a pattern of conduct the intent of which was to follow, alarm, or harass the plaintiff. In order to establish this element, the plaintiff shall be required to support his or her allegations with independent corroborating evidence.
    2. As a result of that pattern of conduct, the plaintiff reasonably feared for his or her safety, or the safety of an immediate family member. For purposes of this paragraph, “immediate family” means a spouse, parent, child, any person related by consanguinity or affinity within the second degree, or any person who regularly resides, or, within the six months preceding any portion of the pattern of conduct, regularly resided, in the plaintiff’s household.
    3. One of the following:
      1. The defendant, as a part of the pattern of conduct specified in paragraph (1), made a credible threat with the intent to place the plaintiff in reasonable fear for his or her safety, or the safety of an immediate family member and, on at least one occasion, the plaintiff clearly and definitively demanded that the defendant cease and abate his or her pattern of conduct and the defendant persisted in his or her pattern of conduct.
      2. The defendant violated a restraining order, including, but not limited to, any order issued pursuant to Section 527.6 of the Code of Civil Procedure, prohibiting any act described in subdivision (a).
  2. For the purposes of this section:
    1. “Pattern of conduct” means conduct composed of a series of acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of “pattern of conduct.”
    2. “Credible threat” means a verbal or written threat, including that communicated by means of an electronic communication device, or a threat implied by a pattern of conduct or a combination of verbal, written, or electronically communicated statements and conduct, made with the intent and apparent ability to carry out the threat so as to cause the person who is the target of the threat to reasonably fear for his or her safety or the safety of his or her immediate family.
    3. “Electronic communication device” includes, but is not limited to, telephones, cellular telephones, computers, video recorders, fax machines, or pagers. “Electronic communication” has the same meaning as the term defined in Subsection 12 of Section 2510 of Title 18 of the United States Code.
    4. “Harass” means a knowing and willful course of conduct directed at a specific person which seriously alarms, annoys, torments, or terrorizes the person, and which serves no legitimate purpose. The course of conduct must be such as would cause a reasonable person to suffer substantial emotional distress, and must actually cause substantial emotional distress to the person.
  3. A person who commits the tort of stalking upon another is liable to that person for damages, including, but not limited to, general damages, special damages, and punitive damages pursuant to Section 3294.
  4. In an action pursuant to this section, the court may grant equitable relief, including, but not limited to, an injunction.
  5. The rights and remedies provided in this section are cumulative and in addition to any other rights and remedies provided by law.
  6. This section shall not be construed to impair any constitutionally protected activity, including, but not limited to, speech, protest, and assembly.

SEC. 3. Section 422 of the Penal Code is amended to read:
422. Any person who willfully threatens to commit a crime which will result in death or great bodily injury to another person, with the specific intent that the statement, made verbally, in writing, or by means of an electronic communication device, is to be taken as a threat, even if there is no intent of actually carrying it out, which, on its face and under the circumstances in which it is made, is so unequivocal, unconditional, immediate, and specific as to convey to the person threatened, a gravity of purpose and an immediate prospect of execution of the threat, and thereby causes that person reasonably to be in sustained fear for his or her own safety or for his or her immediate family’s safety, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in the state prison.

For the purposes of this section, “immediate family” means any spouse, whether by marriage or not, parent, child, any person related by consanguinity or affinity within the second degree, or any other person who regularly resides in the household, or who, within the prior six months, regularly resided in the household.

“Electronic communication device” includes, but is not limited to, telephones, cellular telephones, computers, video recorders, fax machines, or pagers. “Electronic communication” has the same meaning as the term defined in Subsection 12 of Section 2510 of Title 18 of the United States Code.

SEC. 4. Section 646.9 of the Penal Code is amended to read:
646.9.

  1. Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows or harasses another person and who makes a credible threat with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear for his or her safety, or the safety of his or her immediate family, is guilty of the crime of stalking, punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison.
  2. Any person who violates subdivision (a) when there is a temporary restraining order, injunction, or any other court order in effect prohibiting the behavior described in subdivision (a) against the same party, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years.
  3. Every person who, having been convicted of a felony under this section, commits a second or subsequent violation of this section shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years.
  4. In addition to the penalties provided in this section, the sentencing court may order a person convicted of a felony under this section to register as a sex offender pursuant to subparagraph (E) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 290.
  5. For the purposes of this section, “harasses” means a knowing and willful course of conduct directed at a specific person that seriously alarms, annoys, torments, or terrorizes the person, and that serves no legitimate purpose. This course of conduct must be such as would cause a reasonable person to suffer substantial emotional distress, and must actually cause substantial emotional distress to the person.
  6. For purposes of this section, “course of conduct” means a pattern of conduct composed of a series of acts over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of “course of conduct.”
  7. For the purposes of this section, “credible threat” means a verbal or written threat, including that performed through the use of an electronic communication device, or a threat implied by a pattern of conduct or a combination of verbal, written, or electronically communicated statements and conduct made with the intent to place the person that is the target of the threat in reasonable fear for his or her safety or the safety of his or her family and made with the apparent ability to carry out the threat so as to cause the person who is the target of the threat to reasonably fear for his or her safety or the safety of his or her family. It is not necessary to prove that the defendant had the intent to actually carry out the threat. The present incarceration of a person making the threat shall not be a bar to prosecution under this section.
  8. For purposes of this section, the term “Electronic communication device” includes, but is not limited to, telephones, cellular phones, computers, video recorders, fax machines, or pagers. “Electronic communication” has the same meaning as the term defined in Subsection 12 of Section 2510 of Title 18 of the United States Code.
  9. This section shall not apply to conduct that occurs during labor picketing.
  10. If probation is granted, or the execution or imposition of a sentence is suspended, for any person convicted under this section, it shall be a condition of probation that the person participate in counseling, as designated by the court. However, the court, upon a showing of good cause, may find that the counseling requirement shall not be imposed.
  11. The sentencing court also shall consider issuing an order restraining the defendant from any contact with the victim, that may be valid for up to 10 years, as determined by the court. It is the intent of the Legislature that the length of any restraining order be based upon the seriousness of the facts before the court, the probability of future violations, and the safety of the victim and his or her immediate family.
  12. For purposes of this section, “immediate family” means any spouse, parent, child, any person related by consanguinity or affinity within the second degree, or any other person who regularly resides in the household, or who, within the prior six months, regularly resided in the household.
  13. The court shall consider whether the defendant would benefit from treatment pursuant to Section 2684. If it is determined to be appropriate, the court shall recommend that the Department of Corrections make a certification as provided in Section 2684. Upon the certification, the defendant shall be evaluated and transferred to the appropriate hospital for treatment pursuant to Section 2684.

SEC. 5. Section 653m of the Penal Code is amended to read:
653m.

  1. Every person who, with intent to annoy, telephones or makes contact by means of an electronic communication device with another and addresses to or about the other person any obscene language or addresses to the other person any threat to inflict injury to the person or property of the person addressed or any member of his or her family, is guilty of a misdemeanor. Nothing in this subdivision shall apply to telephone calls or electronic contacts made in good faith.
  2. Every person who makes repeated telephone calls or makes repeated contact by means of an electronic communication device with intent to annoy another person at his or her residence, is, whether or not conversation ensues from making the telephone call or electronic contact, guilty of a misdemeanor. Nothing in this subdivision shall apply to telephone calls or electronic contacts made in good faith.
  3. Every person who makes repeated telephone calls or makes repeated contact by means of an electronic communication device with the intent to annoy another person at his or her place of work is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by both the fine and imprisonment. Nothing in this subdivision shall apply to telephone calls or electronic contacts made in good faith. This subdivision applies only if one or both of the following circumstances exist:
    1. There is a temporary restraining order, an injunction, or any other court order, or any combination of these court orders, in effect prohibiting the behavior described in this section.
    2. The person makes repeated telephone calls or makes repeated contact by means of an electronic communication device with the intent to annoy another person at his or her place of work, totaling more than 10 times in a 24-hour period, whether or not conversation ensues from making the telephone call or electronic contact, and the repeated telephone calls or electronic contacts are made to the workplace of an adult or fully emancipated minor who is a spouse, former spouse, cohabitant, former cohabitant, or person with whom the person has a child or has had a dating or engagement relationship or is having a dating or engagement relationship.
  4. Any offense committed by use of a telephone may be deemed to have been committed where the telephone call or calls were made or received. Any offense committed by use of an electronic communication device or medium, including the Internet, may be deemed to have been committed where the electronic communication or communications were originally sent or first viewed by the recipient.
  5. Subdivision (a), (b), or (c) is violated when the person acting with intent to annoy makes a telephone call requesting a return call and performs the acts prohibited under subdivision (a), (b), or (c) upon receiving the return call.
  6. If probation is granted, or the execution or imposition of sentence is suspended, for any person convicted under this section, the court may order as a condition of probation that the person participate in counseling.
  7. For purposes of this section the term “Electronic communication device” includes, but is not limited to, telephones, cellular phones, computers, video recorders, fax machines, or pagers. “Electronic communication” has the same meaning as the term defined in Subsection 12 of Section 2510 of Title 18 of the United States Code.

SEC. 6. This act shall become operative only if Assembly Bill 2351 is also enacted and becomes operative on or before January 1, 1999.

SEC. 7. No reimbursement is required by this act pursuant to Section 6 of Article XIIIB of the California Constitution because the only costs that may be incurred by a local agency or school district will be incurred because this act creates a new crime or infraction, eliminates a crime or infraction, or changes the penalty for a crime or infraction, within the meaning of Section 17556 of the Government Code, or changes the definition of a crime within the meaning of Section 6 of Article XIIIB of the California Constitution.

Notwithstanding Section 17580 of the Government Code, unless otherwise specified, the provisions of this act shall become operative on the same date that the act takes effect pursuant to the California Constitution.

422.4. (a) Any person who publishes information describing or depicting an academic researcher or his or her immediate family member, or the location or locations where an academic researcher or an immediate family member of an academic researcher may be found, with the intent that another person imminently use the information to commit a crime involving violence or a threat of violence against an academic researcher or his or her immediate family member, and the information is likely to produce the imminent commission of such a crime, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both a fine and imprisonment.
(b) For the purposes of this section, all of the following apply:
(1) “Publishes” means making the information available to another person through any medium, including, but not limited to, the Internet, the World Wide Web, or e-mail.
(2) “Academic researcher” has the same meaning as in Section 602.12.
(3) “Immediate family” means any spouse, whether by marriage or not, domestic partner, parent, child, any person related by consanguinity or affinity within the second degree, or any other person who regularly resides in the household, or who, within the prior six months, regularly resided in the household.
(4) “Information” includes, but is not limited to, an image, film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, or any other computer-generated image.
(c) Any academic researcher about whom information is published in violation of subdivision (a) may seek a preliminary injunction enjoining any further publication of that information. This subdivision shall not apply to a person or entity protected pursuant to Section 1070 of the Evidence Code.
(d) This section shall not apply to any person who is lawfully engaged in labor union activities that are protected under state or federal law.
(e) This section shall not preclude prosecution under any other provision of law.

Source

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Posted by admin - at 9:58 pm

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Arizona Cyberstalking Laws

Arizona Harassment Laws

13-2921. Harassment; classification; definition

  1. A person commits harassment if, with intent to harass or with knowledge that the person is harassing another person, the person:
    1. Anonymously or otherwise communicates or causes a communication with another person by verbal, electronic, mechanical, telegraphic, telephonic or written means in a manner that harasses.
    2. Continues to follow another person in or about a public place for no legitimate purpose after being asked to desist.
    3. Repeatedly commits an act or acts that harass another person.
    4. Surveils or causes another person to surveil a person for no legitimate purpose.
    5. On more than one occasion makes a false report to a law enforcement, credit or social service agency.
    6. Interferes with the delivery of any public or regulated utility to a person.
  2. A person commits harassment against a public officer or employee if the person, with intent to harass, files a nonconsensual lien against any public officer or employee that is not accompanied by an order or a judgment from a court of competent jurisdiction authorizing the filing of the lien or is not issued by a governmental entity or political subdivision or agency pursuant to its statutory authority, a validly licensed utility or water delivery company, a mechanics’ lien claimant or an entity created under covenants, conditions, restrictions or declarations affecting real property.
  3. Harassment under subsection A is a class 1 misdemeanor. Harassment under subsection B is a class 5 felony.
  4. This section does not apply to an otherwise lawful demonstration, assembly or picketing.
  5. For purposes of this section, “harassment” means conduct directed at a specific person which would cause a reasonable person to be seriously alarmed, annoyed or harassed and the conduct in fact seriously alarms, annoys or harasses the person.

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Posted by admin - at 8:12 pm

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Alaska Cyberstalking Laws


Alaska Online Abuse Laws

HB 12 HARASSMENT BY ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION

Went into effect 07/30/03

00                              HOUSE BILL NO. 12
01 "An Act relating to harassment."
02 BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF ALASKA:
03    * Section 1.  AS 11.61.120(a) is amended to read:
04            (a)  A person commits the crime of harassment if, with intent to harass or
05       annoy another person, that person
06                 (1)  insults, taunts, or challenges another person in a manner likely to
07       provoke an immediate violent response;
08                 (2)  telephones another and fails to terminate the connection with intent
09       to impair the ability of that person to place or receive telephone calls;
10                 (3)  makes repeated telephone calls at extremely inconvenient hours;
11                 (4)  makes an anonymous or obscene telephone call or electronic 
12       communication or a telephone call or electronic communication that threatens
13       physical injury; or
14                 (5)  subjects another person to offensive physical contact.

Sec. 11.41.270. Stalking in the second degree.

Source

(a) A person commits the crime of stalking in the second degree if the person knowingly engages in a course of conduct that recklessly places another person in fear of death or physical injury, or in fear of the death or physical injury of a family member.

(b) In this section,

(1) “course of conduct” means repeated acts of nonconsensual contact involving the victim or a family member;

(2) “family member” means a

(A) spouse, child, grandchild, parent, grandparent, sibling, uncle, aunt, nephew, or niece, of the victim, whether related by blood, marriage, or adoption;

(B) person who lives, or has previously lived, in a spousal relationship with the victim;

(C) person who lives in the same household as the victim; or

(D) person who is a former spouse of the victim or is or has been in a dating, courtship, or engagement relationship with the victim;

(3) “nonconsensual contact” means any contact with another person that is initiated or continued without that person’s consent, that is beyond the scope of the consent provided by that person, or that is in disregard of that person’s expressed desire that the contact be avoided or discontinued; “nonconsensual contact” includes

(A) following or appearing within the sight of that person;

(B) approaching or confronting that person in a public place or on private property;

(C) appearing at the workplace or residence of that person;

(D) entering onto or remaining on property owned, leased, or occupied by that person;

(E) contacting that person by telephone;

(F) sending mail or electronic communications to that person;

(G) placing an object on, or delivering an object to, property owned, leased, or occupied by that person;

(4) “victim” means a person who is the target of a course of conduct.

(c) Stalking in the second degree is a class A misdemeanor.

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Posted by admin - at 8:01 pm

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